Supplementary MaterialsAdditional document 1: Desk S1. in comparison to settings. Whereas, Cygb overexpression considerably reduced the mRNA and proteins manifestation degrees of collagen I, collagen III and fibronectin compared with control (p? ?0.01). There was also a statistically significant decrease in the mRNA and protein levels of TGF-1 and HIF-1 in Torin 1 pontent inhibitor hTFs with overexpressed Cygb compared with control group (p? ?0.05). Conclusion Our study provided evidence that overexpression of Cygb decreased the expression levels Torin 1 pontent inhibitor of fibronectin, collagen I, collagen III, TGF-1 and HIF-1 in hTFs. Therefore, therapies targeting Cygb expression in hTFs may pave a new way for clinicians to solve the problem of post-glaucoma surgery scarring. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s40659-019-0229-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. strong class=”kwd-title” Keywords: Glaucoma, Cytoglobin, Human tenon fibroblast, Extracellular matrix Introduction Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, besides, the blindness caused by glaucoma is irreversible [1]. It is reported that glaucoma presently affects 60.5 million people, and the prevalence is projected to increase to 79.6 million by 2020 worldwide. Glaucoma filtering surgery (GFS) is considered as an effective treatment for glaucoma, but postoperative filtering bleb scar formation often leads to surgical failure. Mytomycin-C (MMC) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) have been used intraoperatively and postoperatively in patients undergoing GFS, but the serious complications, such as filtering bleb leaks and low-pressure cystoid macular edema, limits their application [2]. Therefore, prevention of scarring post glaucoma surgery has become an important subject of study in ophthalmology. A previous study showed that human tenon fibroblasts (hTFs), an undifferentiated mesenchymal cell type found in the connective tissue of the conjunctiva, play an important role in the process of scarring post GFS [3]. Therefore, hTFs may have important significance in inhibiting filtering bleb scar formation post GFS. Cytoglobin (Cygb), also known as stellate cell activation-associated protein, was originally characterized as a heme protein that exhibits enhanced expression in stellate cells in a rat liver fibrosis model [4]. Cygb is a new member of the oxygen-carrying globulin family and is widely expressed in organisms. In the human genome, Cygb gene is located on chromosome 17q25.3, containing three introns and four exons, and encoding a protein composed of 190 amino acids [5, 6]. It has been demonstrated that Cygb is expressed in a broad range of tissues, including the brain, heart, liver, and lung, and in various developmental phases. Additionally, Cygb can be expressed even more in connective cells than in additional tissues, and it is HOX1I loaded in fibroblasts and fibroblast cell lines, such as for example cartilage cells, osteoblasts, hepatic stellate cells, and myofibroblasts. Lately, some research possess proven that Cygb can be indicated at a minimal level in neurons also, muscle cells, liver organ parenchymal cells, and epithelial cells [7, 8] aswell as with iris, ciliary body, cornea and retina from the eye [9, 10]. Thuy Torin 1 pontent inhibitor et al. [11] recommended that Cygb-deficient mice screen multiple body organ abnormalities, such as for example cardiac enlargement, liver organ fibrosis, and lymphoma. Xu et al. [12] reported that regular overexpression of Cygb during cells injury performed a homeostatic impact, that could inhibit free radical-induced fibroblast tissue and activation fibrosis. Postoperative filtering bleb marks derive from fibroblast subconjunctival and proliferation fibrosis seen as a cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation, extreme ECM deposition and synthesis, free of charge radical accumulation, aswell as local swelling characterized by the current presence of different cytokines, such as for example TGF, vascular endothelial development element (VEGF), and fundamental fibroblast growth element (bFGF) [15, 16]. Earlier studies show that activation, proliferation, change, and secretion of cytokines, aswell as synthesis of ECM parts, like.