Louis, MO, USA) for 15 min

Louis, MO, USA) for 15 min. patient-individualized, targeted immunotherapy are urgently needed. Methods: Here, we established cell lines from four bone metastases of different tumor entities. We assessed AdCAR NK-92-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro in standard cytotoxicity assays as well as 3D spheroid models Results: AdCAR-engineered NK-92 cells successfully demonstrated distinct and specific cytotoxic potential targeting different tumor antigens expressed on cell lines established from bone metastases of mammary, renal cell and colorectal carcinoma as well as melanomas. In that process AdCAR NK-92 cells produced a multitude of NK effector molecules as well as pro inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, AdCAR NK-92 showed increased cytotoxicity in 3D spheroid models which can recapitulate in vivo architecture, thereby bridging the gap between in vitro and in vivo models. Conclusions: AdCAR NK-92 cells may provide an interesting and promising off-the-shelf cellular product for the targeted therapy of cancers metastasizing to the bone, while utilization of clinically approved, therapeutic antibodies, as exchangeable adapter molecules can facilitate quick clinical translation. < 0.0001; ***: < 0.001; **: < 0.01; *: < 0.1; ns: 0.1. Next, we examined the kinetics of AdCAR-mediated cytotoxicity after addition of specific biotinylated antibodies. Utilizing the xCELLigence real-time label-free live SCH28080 cell analysis (RTCA) system based in cell impedance measurement, tumor cells were co-incubated with AdCAR and parental NK-92 cells with and without bAb and monitored for over 12 h. The dimensionless cell index is proportional to the amount of live tumor cells. NK-mediated cytotoxicity is assessed by measurement of cell index decrease. AdCAR NK-92 cells but not parental NK-92 cells successfully lysed the tumor cells of renal cell carcinoma MAM and melanoma MeGa17 in less than 4 h, but only in the presence of a specific bAb (Figure 3a,b). Specific tumor cell lysis correlated with surface expression of the respective antigen and no long-term tumor regrowth was observed with adapter molecules targeting highly expressed antigens. Open in a separate window Figure 3 Kinetics of AdCAR-mediated tumor cell lysis. AdCAR NK-92 cells were co incubated with unlabeled tumor cell lines MAM (a) and MeGa17 (b) in the presence or absence of indicated biotinylated antibodies and constantly monitored over time using the xCELLigence real time cell analysis system. NK-mediated tumor cell lysis is depicted as decrease in the dimensionless cell index, = 3. To further examine NK-92-mediated lysis, a cytokine secretion profile was established to screen for secretion of a variety of cytokines, including NK cell effector molecules. Various cytokines were significantly increased after co-incubation of AdCAR-transduced NK-92 cells with MAC cells (Figure 4). GM-CSF (22-fold; < 0.002), IL-10 (10-fold, < 0.0002), granulysin (24-fold; < 0.0006), granzyme B (6-fold, < 0.0001), IFN- (10-fold; < 0.0009), MIP-1b (2-fold; < 0.008) and TNF- Rabbit polyclonal to DUSP7 (32-fold; < 0.0001) showed significantly elevated levels but only upon AdCAR induction via SCH28080 specific biotinylated antibodies. While enhanced secretion of granulysin and granzyme B directly account for increased tumor lysis, IFN- and TNF- stimulate the endogenous immune system and indirectly enhance anti-tumor activity. Secretion of MCP-1 and perforin was not significantly augmented after AdCAR activation (1.7-fold and 1.4-fold, respectively). Open in a separate window Figure 4 Cytokine secretion profile of AdCAR NK-92 cells. AdCAR NK-92 cells as well as parental NK-92 cells were co-incubated with the tumor cell line MAC in the presence and absence of bEGFR for 6 h at an E:T ratio oif 5:1. The release of cytokines was measured using the Bio-Plex Pro human cytokine 17-plex assay and is shown as a heatmap. PMA/Ionomycin was used as control to induce maximum cytokine secretion. 2.3. NK-92 Cells Exhibit Successful AdCAR-Mediated Cytotoxicity in a Three-Dimensional Tumor Cell Model While the majority of in vitro studies about cellular immunotherapy are still based on tumor cell monolayer culture systems, examination of three-dimensional SCH28080 (3D) tumor models allows for limited translation to the in vivo situation. Thus, we generated multicellular spheroids of the GFP-transduced cell lines. Since just one out of the four cell lines successfully grew as a solid spheroid, only the renal cell carcinoma MAM was used to assess cytotoxic potential of AdCAR NK-92 cells in a 3D model. After four days of culture tumor spheroids were co-incubated with either AdCAR-transduced or parental NK-92 cells in the presence or absence of biotinylated antibodies and monitored for over 96 h. Fluorescence signals of MAM spheroids co-incubated with NK-92 cells were correlated with untreated control spheroids (Figure 5a,b). After 48 h AdCAR NK-92 cells in combination with bCD146, bCD276 or bEGFR successfully increased NK-mediated lysis of MAM tumor cells to 76.9%,.

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