Data Availability StatementAll data generated or analyzed during this research are

Data Availability StatementAll data generated or analyzed during this research are one of them published content. floury maize, and regular barley and wheat had been sectioned effectively using the recently established technique. The iodine-stained section obviously exhibited the designs and size of starch granules in different regions of seed. The starch granules with different morphologies and iodine-staining colours existed regionally in the seeds of high-amylose rice and maize. The sections of Gadd45a lotus and kidney bean seeds also showed the feasibility of this method for starchy non-cereal seeds. Summary The simple and rapid method was verified effective for preparing the whole sections of starchy seeds. The whole section of Ecdysone biological activity seed could be used to investigate the morphology and distribution of starch granules in different regions of the whole seed. The method was especially suitable for large sample figures to investigate the starch morphology in short time. Linn.), have high starch content [2]. Lotus seeds are also rich in starch [3]. The starch in starchy seed plant significantly influences the seed excess weight and texture, and determines its applications in food and nonfood industries [4, 5]. Consequently, the study of seed starch constantly draws the attention of researchers. Starch granules from different plant sources have significantly different designs, sizes, and hilum positions [6]. The differences may be attributed to the biological origin, biochemistry of the amyloplast, and physiology of the plant [7]. The starches from the different organs (such as seed and rhizome) [8] or tissues (such as endosperm and pericarp) of the same plant species have also different granule morphologies [9]. Even more, the lenticular large starch granules and spherical small starch granules coexist in the same endosperm cell of crops [9C11]. Recently, starch granules with different morphologies or iodine-staining colours (nominated as heterogeneous starch granules) are observed in the endosperm of some cereal high-amylose transgenic or mutant lines [12C14]. These heterogeneous starch granules are regionally distributed in the endosperm, and display significantly different structural and practical properties [12, 13, 15]. In addition, Zhao et al. [16] found that the starch granules in different regions of normal rice and maize endosperm possess significantly different sizes. For the above reasons, it is crucial to Ecdysone biological activity in situ investigate the morphology and distribution of starch granules in the whole seed, especially for the seeds with heterogeneous starch granules. For in situ observation of starch in seed, the conventional method is definitely to embed the small part of seed in epoxy or spurr resin after chemical fixation [9C11]. This method is capable for preparing semithin section of young endosperm, but it is impossible to obtain the whole section of mature seed. Andersson et al. [17] and J??skel?inen et al. [18] used the historesin embedding kit to successfully obtain the whole section of barley and wheat mature seeds with 4?m thickness for investigating seed structure. Recently, Zhao et al. [16] founded a method for preparing the whole section of mature cereal seeds with 2?m thickness to visualize the morphology of endosperm cell and starch and the distribution of starch and protein in whole seed using LR White resin, a low-viscosity and high-permeability resin. However, the chemical fixation, dehydration, resin permeation, and embedding processes of sample are Ecdysone biological activity needed before resin sectioning, which takes long time to obtain the section and makes it unsuitable for large sample numbers to investigate the starch morphology [4]. Matsushima et al. [4] reported a rapid method to prepare thin section of cereal mature seed using the razor blade without resin embedding. Compared with resin embedding method, the method is simpler and faster for observation of starch morphology and is highly suitable for the Ecdysone biological activity investigation of a large number of samples in short time. However, in fact, it is very difficult to successfully prepare the section. In addition, it is impossible for obtaining the complete section of whole seed, and the uneven section thickness makes observation image vague. Liu et al. [12] and Wellner et al. [19] successfully prepared the section of mature maize seed using glass knife under ultramicrotome instead of razor blade. This method is simple, and.

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